According to Cummins Inc., the company first began developing its EPA-compliant 2010 engines back in 2004 and both its medium- and heavy-duty solutions for the next emissions hurdle will essentially be an “evolution” of its 2007 EPA-compliant engines.
“Cummins heavy-duty engines will use an evolution of our 2007 integrated solution, consisting of the next generation of the cooled EGR subsystem, a variable geometry (VG) turbocharger, advanced electronic controls, proven air handling, and the Cummins Particulate Filter to comply with NOx and PM standards,” the manufacturer states. “Cummins' solution for heavy-duty 2010 EPA standards includes no NOx aftertreatment.” The 2010 heavy-duty (HD) Cummins products will include the XPI high-pressure common rail (HPCR) fuel system.
The company points out that “from a visual standpoint, a customer may be challenged to differentiate an EPA-2010 certified engine from today's product. As with the current heavy-duty product, Cummins fully expects that the EPA-2010 product will have equal to — or improved — performance and drivability vs. today's product.”
Cummins says its midrange engines for 2010 will also deploy “an evolution of the 2007 integrated solution, consisting of the next generation of EGR, a VG turbocharger, advanced electronic controls, proven air handling, the Cummins Particulate Filter and the addition of NOx aftertreatment. Cummins expects to maintain, or improve, product performance, drivability and durability with the 2010 midrange products. Changes to the Cummins 2010 midrange products will be minimal and should appear transparent to customers.”
Cummins announced last fall that it will not use selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology to meet EPA 2010 emissions regulations for heavy-duty diesel engines, but that it would use SCR to meet the regs for medium-duty engines.
It is expected that Cummins will be able to avoid using SCR on its heavy-duty 2010 engine, thanks to a special EPA provision that allows “banking credits” for emissions compliance. Cummins told Fleet Owner that it and other engine makers have “consistently used the averaging banking and trading provisions in the [EPA] rules for many years and will continue to do so when it makes sense. In all cases, credits are discounted before they can be used.”
Detroit Diesel Corp
Technological maturity and stability are key words for DDC as it ramps up 2010 testing this quarter. According to Rakesh Aneja, program manager for 2010 heavy engine development, by using well-tested SCR systems from its parent company in Europe, DDC can provide engines for the U.S. market that are reliable, durable and have lower overall life cycle costs.
“I don't want to oversimplify this — SCR isn't ‘bolt on' technology. It needs to be optimized to our U.S. base engines to meet the 2010 standards at the lowest life cycle cost we can,” he explains. “By using existing technology that's already been well-tested, we can break some of the classic trade-offs we've faced in the past in terms of fuel economy and cleaner air, for example.”
DDC is starting the validation stage of its 2010 solutions via road tests with engineering test vehicles — wired to collect a variety of data in winter, summer and high-altitude conditions — as well as with a high-mileage DDC-owned fleet designed to rack up extensive real-world data.
Aneja doesn't project higher heat rejection levels for 2010 engines compared to the 2007 platform, and thinks they might even go down. The need for a new engine oil spec is also considered unlikely. Packaging the SCR system on the truck — especially the tank holding urea — will be a major focus of DDC's testing.
“We're working with our sister company Freightliner [Daimler Trucks North America] to make sure we find a good home for the tank and other SCR technology on the vehicle,” he says. “That will help us address issues such as freeze points for the urea solution and other operational issues.”
For 2010, International says that its MaxxForce diesel engines for “all its core applications” will comply with emission targets without SCR technology, which requires the use of urea.
Rather than deploy SCR, the company says it intends to meet the stricter 2010 rules through advanced fuel system, air management, combustion and controls. International says strategic development for 2010-compliant engines began in 2004 and initial lab development began in 2005 and will be designed off the current 2007 products, with no incremental NOx aftertreatment beyond current technology required on any core International on-highway application in 2010.
The company notes it has been conducting lab testing since 2005 on its non-SCR solution and says analysis and lab data to date is showing fuel neutrality. Though some trucking applications may require additional cooling, International says no changes in the API oil spec are expected.
Daniel Ustian, chairman, president and CEO of Navistar, International's parent company, stresses that all MaxxForce on-highway diesel engines will be fully certified to the 2010 emission standards. “I have publicly been an advocate of customer-friendly emissions control solutions which do not add additional costs to our truck and bus customers,” he says. “While SCR is a means to achieve the NOx reduction requirement for 2010, it comes with a steep cost to our customers.”
“Coming so soon after 2007 EPA standards, which mandated new engines and aftertreatment systems that drove up the price of commercial vehicles, [we wanted] 2010 to be a less taxing time for our customers,” adds Jack Allen, president of International's Engine Group.
As part of a worldwide engine manufacturing company, Isuzu Commercial Truck of America Inc. is ahead of schedule with development of emission systems to meet the 2010 requirements.
The parent company is currently running prototype engines using SCR technology to reach required emission reductions, but has made no public statements yet on its final technological choice, according to Todd Bloom, vp-marketing. “The biggest concern is cost,” he says. “In general, meeting '07 [emission requirements] added $3,000 to $10,000 to the price of trucks in this market. We're expecting a sizeable increase for 2010 as well, at least the same level if not more.”
Given the cost of developing the technology to meet 2010, as well as similar emission requirements in other markets around the world, “joint development is almost a necessity,” says Bloom. Isuzu is currently working with various partners in global markets on such joint projects.
“In a nutshell, we're working towards [meeting] 2010, we have the technology, we'll continue with our basic current engine platforms, and our major concern at this point is cost,” Bloom says.
To meet EPA's 2010 emission rules, Nissan Diesel America, the U.S. distributor for Nissan Diesel Japan, will employ SCR, which the OEM has been using on its trucks in Japan since 2005, when that country's tighter emission standards went into effect.
The truck maker has developed a Final Low Emission New Diesel System, or FLENDS, which combines ultra-high-pressure fuel injection (for PM reduction) with SCR. The latter injects urea into the exhaust stream to reduce excess NOx, a byproduct of PM reduction.
Dave Trussell, director of marketing, says the major technical challenge posed by SCR is the location of the urea tank. In Japan, the OEM's trucks typically use a 30L urea tank, sufficient for about 1,000 kilometers. A built-in warning system alerts the driver when the urea tank needs refilling. If the urea runs out, the engine automatically begins a phased-in shutdown with numerous warnings beforehand to the driver that the urea tank is close to empty. Nissan Diesel says that the shutdown process does not damage the motor in any way.
The new kid on the block in the North American truck engine market is Paccar. The parent of Kenworth Truck and Peterbilt Motors will be rolling out diesel engines of its own design and manufacture in time to meet EPA 2010 emission regulations.
Although the global company would not comment on its progress toward 2010 for this report, it showcased the European technology that will be the basis for the proprietary 12.9L big block engine it is developing and testing for the North American market during media briefings last fall at its Leyland Trucks Ltd. assembly plant in England and its DAF Trucks N.V. production facilities in The Netherlands.
Paccar's DAF subsidiary powers its flagship DAF XF105 tractor with the current version of the Paccar 12.9L engine, designated the MX in Europe. There, the engine puts out up to 510 hp. and is touted as boasting a design life of 1-million miles.
Fitted in the DAF XF105 long-haul cabover, the MX engine is available with outputs of 300 kW (410 hp.), 340 kW (460 hp.) and 375 kW (510 hp.), with maximum torques of 1,775; 2,000; 2,300 and 2,500 Nm respectively. It is available over a broad speed range of 1,000 to 1,500 rpm.
For the DAF CF85 regional and vocational truck models, there is also a 265 kW (360 hp.) version, offering a maximum torque of 1,775 Nm. A compact 6-cyl. in-line engine, the MX features an advanced design cylinder block and head that includes the application of high-quality materials such as compact graphite iron (CGI).
Considering that it is equipped with SCR aftertreatment to meet Euro 5 emission regulations, the MX is seen as a platform to meet EPA 2010 rules.
According to Alan Treasure, Paccar director of marketing, the “MX and other Paccar engines are being studied for [meeting] 2010 emissions” in North America. However, he emphasizes that a 2010 design has not been announced yet by the Bellevue, WA-based OEM.
The first U.S. truck maker to publicly declare its intention to use SCR technology in 2010, Volvo Trucks North America (VTNA) already has five trucks equipped with the NOx reduction systems in fleet field tests.
Back in mid 2006, Volvo's North American group announced that its solution for meeting 2010 requirements with its new family of diesel engines would combine SCR with two other emission technologies currently employed to meet existing emission standards — diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). SCR injects a urea solution into the exhaust that allows a catalyst to break down NOx into nitrogen and water vapor.
Making that announcement, then-VTNA president and CEO Peter Karlsten said: “We know from Volvo's experience in other markets that SCR is the best technology for producing very low NOx emissions, plus excellent fuel economy.”
Volvo has been using SCR in production trucks since 2006 to meet Europe's Euro 4 emission regulations, which provide early adopting fleets with significant tax incentives. Last September, the company put five Volvo VN Daycabs with the SCR system into service with Talon Logistics, the distribution unit for the food retailer Giant Eagle Inc. The trucks are powered by the 13L Volvo D13 diesel and run in a regional distribution operation in western Pennsylvania. Seven more Volvo tractors with SCR-equipped Volvo diesels are scheduled to join the field test within the next few months. Both the original five and the additional test trucks achieve the PM and NOx emission levels required by EPA for 2010, according to VTNA.
“We already have over 100,000 trucks in Europe running with SCR with no problems,” says Ed Saxman, product manager-drivetrain for VTNA. “SCR is really an exquisite way to handle NOx. It's a chemical reaction that occurs in the exhaust stream, so you can let the engine run efficiently and handle NOx with aftertreatment. That gives you greater power density and better fuel economy.”